A Critical Study in the Schism in Early Buddhist Monastic Tradition By Lokananda C. Bhikkhu
After the death of the buddha, his religious institution, samgha, split into different sects. Scholars believe there are two reasons for this split: a dispute on disciplinary codes, the ten points (dasavatthu), which was introduced at the second buddhist council by the vajjian pancavaggiya monks. After the councils rejection, the vajjian monks left the council, causing a split. A doctrinal controversy propounded by a monk called mahadeva. Mahadeva propounded five-points (pancavatthu) that are said to be a doctrinal issue, introduced them to his pupils at kukkutarama of pataliputra, and eventually caused a split within the monastic establishment. After examining both of these issues, this researcher concluded that neither played a significant role in the schism, as alleged, and that the actual cause included political influence on the monastic establishment, sociological conflict among the members of the samgha, and the geographic isolation of the members of the samgha. Lokananda c bhikkhu the author read buddhism and hindi language at the university of sri lanka; migrated to the states, then attended university of california-los angeles (ucla), california state university-long beach (csulb), san jose state university and university at the west, rosemead, california; and holds the degrees of ba, ma, mlis, phd, and a diploma-in-buddhist studies. He has attended numerous conferences, seminars, workshops, in europe, asia and in the usa. He studied pali, sanskrit, bengali, japanese, german, and french languages. He is the chief incumbent and president of the bangla-america buddhist fellowship (sambodhi vihara) and lives in long beach california, usa.